Access options available:. Revivification and Revision Horacio Quiroga's Reading of Poe Caroline Egan Edgar Allan Poe suffered from a malady common to nineteenth-century American authors living on both continents: economic circumstances that necessitated a reliance on the market forces of a polity and society with which he clashed. Poe often criticized his contemporary social, political, and literary spheres, and expressed a particular distaste for what he deemed the "folly" of a national literature "Exordium to Critical Notices" Perhaps as a remedy to this "folly," he wrote, "the world at large [forms] the only proper stage for the literary histrio" ; "Editorial Miscellanies" Ironically, at the time Poe claimed the world over nation as the stage for literature, the United States was extending its reach throughout this same "world at large," exemplifying a different cosmopolitan impulse that manifested itself in an expanding global presence and hemispheric hegemony. This paper considers the variance of these two cosmopolitanisms—the negation of a national particularity proposed by Poe against the economic and political expansion at work on a global scale by the United States—as they emerge in several alterations made to Poe's work by the Uruguayan author Horacio Quiroga —
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Uruguayan writer Horacio Quiroga , a master of the short story, perfected an economic, naturalistic, and precise prose style.
II Cree que su arte es una cima inaccesible. Think of your art as an unreachable mountaintop. Resist imitation as much as you can, but imitate if the influence is too strong. More than anything else, it will take great patience to develop your own personality. IV Ten fe ciega no en tu capacidad para el triunfo, sino en el ardor con que lo deseas.
Have a blind faith not in your capacity for success, but in your desire for it. Love your art like you love your bride, and give it your full heart. In a well-told story, the first three lines are almost as important as the last three. VII No adjetives sin necesidad. Pero hay que hallarlo. If you find the precise noun, it will have an incomparable color all by itself. But you have to find it.
No abuses del lector. Un cuento es una novela depurada de ripios. Ten esto por una verdad absoluta, aunque no lo sea. Take your characters by the hand and lead them firmly to the end without letting them see anything other than the road you created for them.
A short story is a novel without the padding. Si eres capaz entonces de revivirla tal cual fue, has llegado en arte a la mitad del camino.
Let them die and evoke them later. If you can revive them the way they were, your art has taken you halfway toward your goal. No de otro modo se obtiene la vida del cuento. Tell it as if your story were interesting only to the small world of its characters and as if you were one of them. You cannot breathe life into your story otherwise.
His father died in an accident when he was two months old. His stepfather killed himself in front of Quiroga while he was an adolescent. Later his first wife and two of his children committed suicide.
He made poor romantic decisions. His second wife left him. He accidentally killed a close friend. One after another, his business ventures failed. He was sickly and impulsive, and he drank too much. Finally, he was diagnosed with painful, terminal cancer, and he killed himself. But in his early 20s, he discovered Poe and other writers and began his literary career.
Later, he traveled to the Amazon jungle and fell in love with it. The harsh lessons of his life and of untamed nature fueled his fiction. You can learn more about him and read his collection Jungle Tales translated into English at the Horacio Quiroga Foundation.
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Ten Commandments for Storytellers
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Believe that your art is an inaccessible peak. Do not dream of conquering it. When you can do it, you will achieve it without even knowing it. Resist imitation as much as you can, but imitate if the influence is too strong.
Horacio Silvestre Quiroga Forteza