AKTA PEMBANGUNAN PETROLEUM 1974 PDF

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What both Hafarizam Harun and Rahman Yakub failed to take into consideration were the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on what constitutes Territorial Waters and the international agreement on the Exclusive Economic Zone of each country.

Kelantan is not entitled to claim oil royalty outside its territorial waters because the Emergency Essential Powers Ordinance is still enforced, said a law practitioner. Datuk Mohd Hafarizam Harun said provision No. Hafarizam Harun is a lawyer. I am not. Or so the common perception would be that. They are in fact nautical miles from the Kelantan coast.

This overrides what Queen Elizabeth ruled in , before Malaya gained independence in and the creation of Malaysia in In , Sabah and Sarawak were British Colonies. That has since changed. Can Malaysia argue that detention without trial a law is illegal because the Queen said so in ?

Since Merdeka in Malaysia has introduced many new laws that replaced the pre-Merdeka laws. We must remember that when Malaya was created there was an agreement that certain matters are federal matters while certain matters are state matters. Resources are state matters. That is why the states decide on matters such as land, timber, water, tin, gold, and what have you. In that sense, oil and gas are state matters since these are also resources. If oil and gas are not included as state matters and if the federal government can automatically take over all the oil and gas in the state, why then the need to introduce the Petroleum Development Act in ?

The federal government can just take all the oil and gas in the various states without introducing a new law allowing them to do so. But no, the federal government had to introduce the Petroleum Development Act in because oil and gas belong to the states. It is the property of the states. Basically, the Petroleum Development Act of was aimed at making it legal for the federal government to take over the oil and gas that actually belonged to the states.

If not it would be illegal for the federal government to do so. Then they made all the states sign an agreement with Petronas.

The Petroleum Development Act alone was not good enough. The states could still refuse to allow the federal government to take its oil and gas.

So they forced all the states to sign an agreement with Petronas, which they did although reluctantly. In , Petronas signed a Supplementary Agreement with all the states.

All this was not mentioned in the Bernama report above. What the Queen did in is no longer relevant. Other things have since happened in , , , , , and These are the new arrangements. Since then the Territorial Waters have been extended to 12 nautical miles. The Exclusive Economic Zone has been extended to nautical miles.

The federal government took over the oil and gas, which rightfully belonged to the states, through an Act of Parliament. Petronas signed two agreements with all the states in and As I said, I am no lawyer and it would be foolish of me to rebut the opinion of a lawyer.

But then this lawyer failed to take into consideration many other factors in his opinion. So that does not make him a very good lawyer if a non-lawyer like me can shoot his opinion full of holes. A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

Within the exclusive economic zone EEZ , the coastal state has sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources, both living and nonliving, of the seabed, subsoil, and the subjacent waters and, with regard to other activities, for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone e.

Within the EEZ, the coastal state has jurisdiction with regard to establishing and using artificial islands, installations, and structures having economic purposes as well as for marine scientific research and the protection and preservation of the marine environment. Other states may, however, exercise traditional high seas freedoms of navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as conducting military exercises in the EEZ.

Also called EEZ. Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. In casual use, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf beyond the mile limit.

The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than nautical miles km apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary. Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state. Thus, the EEZ includes the contiguous zone.

States also have rights to the seabed of the continental shelf up to nautical miles km from the coastal baseline, where this extends beyond the EEZ, but this does not form part of their EEZ. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Convention, concluded in , replaced four treaties. To date, countries and the European Community have joined in the Convention. However, it is now regarded as a codification of the customary international law on the issue. While the Secretary General of the United Nations receives instruments of ratification and accession and the UN provides support for meetings of states party to the Convention, the UN has no direct operational role in the implementation of the Convention.

There is, however, a role played by organizations such as the International Maritime Organization, the International Whaling Commission, and the International Seabed Authority the latter being established by the UN Convention. Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most twelve nautical miles from the baseline usually the mean low-water mark of a coastal state.

The territorial sea is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, although foreign ships both military and civilian are allowed innocent passage through it; this sovereignty also extends to the airspace over and seabed below. Translated into BM by Jason:. Menurut seorang pengamal undang-undang, Kelantan tidak berhak menuntut royalti minyak di luar wilayah perairannya kerana Ordinan Kuasa-Kuasa Perlu Darurat masih berkuatkuasa.

Datuk Mohd Hafarizam Harun berkata peruntukan No. Hafarizam Harun berkata bahawa telaga minyak tersebut berada di luar tiga batu nautika perairan Kelantan. Bahkan ia terletak batu nautika dari pantai Kelantan. Oleh itu, Hafarizam Harun berhujah bahawa Kelantan tak berhak mendapat royalti minyak.

Mantan Ketua Menteri Sarawak, Rahman Yaakub pula berpandangan bahawa Sabah dan Sarawak berhak mendapat royalti minyak, sedanglan Kelantan tak berhak menerimanya dia tak mengulas sama ada Terengganu berhak mendapat royalti minyak ataupun tidak kerana pada tahun , Ratu Elizabeth menyatakan bahawa wilayah perairan negeri-negeri Malaysia Timur menjangkaui had tiga batu nautika itu.

Seperti mana-mana negara lain, wilayah perairan Malaysia meliputi 12 batu nautika dari pantainya, manakala Zon Ekonomi Eksklusif Malaysia pula mencecah batu nautika. Ini membatalkan perintah Ratu Elizabeth Ratu pada tahun , sebelum Malaya mencapai kemerdekaan pada tahun dan pembentukan Malaysia pada tahun Pada tahun , Sabah dan Sarawak adalah jajahan British.

Hakikat ini sudah berubah. Misalnya, bolehkah Malaysia berhujah bahawa penahanan tanpa dibicarakan undang-undang yang digubal pada tahun adalah tidak sah kerana ia tidak selari dengan arahan Ratu pada tahun ? Realitinya adalah sejak Merdeka pada tahun , Malaysia telah memperkenalkan banyak undang-undang baru yang menggantikan undang-undang pra-Merdeka.

Kita perlu ingat bahawa ketika Malaya diwujudkan, terdapat persetujuan bahawa perkara-perkara tertentu dianggap sebagai urusan kerajaan persekutuan, manakala ada pula perkara yang dianggap sebagai urusan kerajaan negeri. Dalam hal ini, sumber sumber asli adalah urusan kerajaan negeri. Inilah sebabnya perkara yang melibatkan sumber seperti tanah, balak, air, timah, emas dan sebagainya diputuskan oleh kerajaan negeri.

Jadi, minyak dan gas adalah urusan kerajaan negeri kerana kedua-duanya adalah sumber kerajaan negeri. Jika minyak dan gas bukan urusan kerajaan negeri dan jika kerajaan persekutuan boleh mengambil alih semua minyak dan gas di semua negeri secara automatik, maka mengapakah Akta Pembangunan Petroleum terpaksa diperkenalkan pada tahun ?

Kerajaan persekutuan boleh saja mengambil semua minyak dan gas di semua negeri tanpa perlu memperkenalkan undang-undang baru yang membenarkan mereka melakukannya. Tetapi kerajaan persekutuan terpaksa memperkenalkan Akta Pembangunan Petroleum pada tahun kerana minyak dan gas adalah milik kerajaan negeri.

Selagi ia terletak dalam lingkungan batu nautika dari pantai, maka kerajaan persekutuan tidak boleh mengambilnya. Ia adalah milik kerajaan negeri. Secara dasarnya, Akta Pembangunan Petroleum pada tahun digubal dengan tujuan membenarkan kerajaan persekutuan mengambil alih minyak dan gas yang sebenarnya dimiliki oleh kerajaan negeri.

Tanpa akta itu, maka kerajaan persekutuan tidak boleh berbuat demikian. Mereka kerajaan persekutuan kemudiannya memaksa semua negeri untuk menandatangani perjanjian dengan Petronas. Ini kerana Akta Pembangunan Petroleum sahaja tidak memadai.

Kerajaan negeri masih boleh menolak untuk membenarkan kerajaan persekutuan mengambil minyak dan gas mereka. Jadi, mereka memaksa semua negeri untuk menandatangani perjanjian dengan Petronas. Pada tahun , Petronas menandatangani Perjanjian Tambahan dengan semua negeri. Tindakan yang dilakukan oleh Ratu pada tahun tidak lagi relevan.

Banyak perkara lain sudah berlaku pada tahun , , , , , dan ; inilah aturan yang baru. Sejak itu, wilayah perairan telah dibesarkan kepada 12 batu nautika. Zon Ekonomi Eksklusif pula dibesarkan kepada batu nautika. Kerajaan persekutuan mengambil alih minyak dan gas, yang sebenarnya adalah milik kerajaan negeri melalui undang-undang Parlimen.

Petronas pula menandatangani dua perjanjian dengan semua negeri pada tahun dan Seperti yang saya katakan tadi, saya bukanlah seorang peguam, dan bodohlah saya kalau saya cuba membantah pendapat seorang peguam.

Tapi peguam terbabit gagal mempertimbangkan banyak faktor lain dalam pendapatnya. Kalau saya yang bukan seorang peguam pun dapat menidakkan pandangannya itu, maka nampak sangatlah bahawa dia bukanlah peguam yang cukup bagus.

Hafarizam Harun adalah seorang peguam. Saya pula bukanlah seorang peguam. Jadi, dah tentu tafsiran Hafarizam Harun mengenai undang-undang adalah lebih tepat daripada tafsiran saya.

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