ALOIS GHERGUT PDF

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Abstract In the last decades more and more countries have encouraged the idea of an inclusive society, a society open and flexible to the phenomenon of human diversity. In this context, the implementation of inclusive policies to integrate students with special educational needs in schools calls for actions from different fields: legal, political, organizational, from the field of psychology, pedagogy, sociology, social work, nursing etc.

Measures shall be taken, from the individual to the social, seeking to ultimately transform society into a system capable of ensuring the integration of persons with special needs in community structures. Romanian schools are trying to adapt the educational offer in relation to the new directions of change in educational activities, as a consequence of inclusive educational programs.

Conclusions are optimistic, but, at the same time, educational services must be changed and adapted to be more flexible and open to the diversity of children that live in the respective communities. Cozma Street, no. In the last decades more and more countries have encouraged the idea of an inclusive society, a society open and flexible to the phenomenon of human diversity.

This study emphasizes the teachers' attitudes and perceptions about inclusive education in the Romanian education system. All rights reserved. Keywords: Special educational needs, inclusive education, disabilities, curriculum, school integration. One of the priority objectives for action in the social system in Romania, after the reform measures in the 's, was to prevent and combat marginalization and social exclusion by improving access to education for disadvantaged groups, so there were created the necessary mechanisms in order to increase participation of disadvantaged groups to education students in regular schools and to improve their school performance by:.

E-mail address: alois uaic. The measures of Romania's Adherence to the European Union and the harmonization of Romanian legislation with the European Community have also taken into consideration the need to improve access to education for disadvantaged groups, the change of philosophy on special education, reorganization of institutions of assistance and care, continuing the process begun in of integrating children with special education needs in regular schools and at the same time preventing undue input into the system, whenever other forms of education that meet the special needs of child development were available.

At the same time, alternative recovery programs and education for children with disabilities have been promoted, in order to encourage their integration into society, taking as a first step their integration into regular schools and kindergartens, etc.

In order to ensure the success of the reform measures of some system, an accurate knowledge of reality is necessary from the start, above all, this condition being even more important if we consider a series of transformations in the educational system; here the impact and its effects have greater resonance for both the quality of the teaching activities and the attitudes and behaviours of the actors involved in the teaching process teachers, pupils, parents, etc.

Ainscow, Starting with the assertion stated above, we considered of high importance to know the views and attitudes of teachers towards large-scale introduction of integrated education in the educational system in our country.

For this purpose we choose, randomly, a batch of teachers from primary and secondary education operating in 12 counties; they filled out a questionnaire gathering information from observations and conversations made during the teaching activities or teacher meetings for the exchange of experience during the debating sessions for each discipline etc.

The distribution of the subjects was according to three basic criteria: gender, social environment in which they operate, length of teaching activity can be followed in Table.

Table 1. The distribution of the total number of subjects investigated by the three basic criteria: sex, social environment, teaching. The distribution of the total number of subjects according to the three criteria attempted to fulfill to a large extent the requirements of representativeness of the lot under investigation.

Arguments supporting this choice may be summarized as follows:. Consequently, the structure of the lot includes a number of female teachers and male teachers;. Hence, according to the investigation in our group, the number of teachers operating in urban areas is bigger than their number in rural areas. In addition to that, it is known that in rural areas, under the current circumstances in our country, there is a serious shortage of specialist teachers, fact which does not, favor, at least for the time being, the promotion of inclusive education through substitutes or other categories of persons or university graduates but lacking a minimum of specialized pedagogical training.

However, there are views supporting the idea that an inclusive approach adopted in country-side schools would be beneficial for some categories of children with special educational needs. The arguments which support these views are. The fact is that currently, the inclusion of children with special educational needs in schools is in a higher proportion in urban than in rural areas, which also justifies the different proportion of the number of questioned subjects teachers working in urban schools and in rural schools ;.

Analyzing the distribution of results to the significant items we can make the following observations:. However, when the respondents were asked to express their opinion on the implementation of inclusion programs in their school thus increasing their involvement and responsibility in issues of inclusion , the number of subjects who consented to it was However, out of the subjects who expressed disagreement with the statement referred to, only 92 of them totally reject the idea of inclusive education in their school, while subjects Comparing the results for item 2 The current national system of education in our country is conducive to promoting inclusion education , where the issue of inclusion is presented with a higher level of generalization, to the results obtained in item 7 It is appropriate to apply the inclusion program for children with special educational needs in the school in which I operate , where the same problem is presented in a custom shape and with a specific involvement of the respondents, there is a dilution of the degree of agreement, while the number of those who reject the whole idea of inclusive education is relatively constant.

Explanations can be attributed either to psychosocial factors some resistance to change, fear of a little-known situation, preserving a degree of comfort at work, etc. These positions are determined by the natural feelings of most teachers confronted with the increasing heterogeneity of the group of students in the class, the lack of homogeneity concerning the students' intellectual potencies and abilities, and the learning limits of each student.

Moreover, networking with certain categories of pupils with special educational needs requires also a certain kind of emotional availability from the educators, items that should be part of their personality structure and are essential in teacher-student relationship in terms of inclusive education.

The numerical proportions and percentages relative to the number of subjects in each group are, in most cases, relatively similar in the overall number of subjects.

However, some small differences in our results can, at best, only suggest the following: a. This may be also because in the country-side schools that spirit of competition artificially created so far, does not manifest so acutely as in the urban area, where it has led to the establishment of a hierarchical evaluation of schools, imposing hierarchy and certain standards of training of the students.

Therefore, it is more difficult to accept the idea of inclusive education in elite schools than in schools situated in the middle or at bottom of that hierarchy; b. Responses to the item 8 If you could intervene in developing a program to integrate children with special educational needs in structures of mass education, which is the main proposals that you would make? Not infrequently, in Romanian education, especially primary education is artificially and subjectively stimulating competition to praise some students usually first place winners and embarrass others who failed to live up to standards by what criteria?

The outcome is that intolerable situations, such as an artificial separation of the pupils, due to the marking criterion usually appear: this leads to minimizing one of the fundamental roles of primary school education- socialization and capacity for cooperation between students in the class through various activities included in the training in the classroom learning activities, games, practical activities, etc.

For example, reading or arithmetic lessons can take place in one kind of setting with furniture and other equipment located in a given formula , while music lessons, crafts, design and, in some cases, classes of communication or foreign language learning can be conducted in a more relaxed atmosphere, compared to the previous one, without restricting the student's freedom of expression within certain limits which do not affect the normal development of lesson.

Analyzing the results of item 10 If you had the opportunity to make a class operate on condition that children with special needs in education are integrated would you accept this new situation? Analyzing these results on the whole, we can see that the vast majority of teachers have a higher dose or less are much less reserved at the prospect of educational activities under the rigors imposed by inclusive education.

This finding justifies to some extent the idea that including children with special needs in mass education in our country is an open issue that, in a more or less remote future will be found a solution acceptable by most teachers for the benefit of those children.

Analyzing the distribution of results to item 12 Which is the essential factor contributing to the success of the inclusion of children with special educational needs in mass education classes? We also noted that successful inclusion depends on reform measures within our educational system: the relaxation and reorganization of the system, the improving of legislation, the need for support offered by school counselors, etc.

To this end measures should be focused on clear strategies for policy clarification on the short, medium and long term in education in our country; it is also important to establish the legal framework necessary for the motivation and active involvement of all those responsible for protecting and educating children with special needs, to reform and modernize the regulatory framework governing the activities of schools and teachers, to change their attitudes regarding the relationships with students, parents and other persons directly or indirectly involved in the educational activity and to improve material facilities necessary to support modern teaching and diversified forms Cooper, ; Biklen, For the fulfillment of these conditions is necessary to improve public awareness through a broad and sustained information campaign on life, education, behavior and social chances and professional interests of children with special needs Ghergut, , Another conclusion concerns the need for restructuring and resizing of learning content to meet the best educational requirements of each student based on the premise of optimal recovery of the student's intellectual potential and skills, while respecting the democratic right of every individual to education, according to the resources and opportunities it provides and the willingness to participate in the education act.

Along with the reform there should be a reconsideration of content adaptation and diversification of learning methods and means of increasing individualization in terms of teaching and radical changes in the assessment strategies necessary for objective assessment, positive motivation and stimulation of each student without affecting their self-esteem and dignity in front of their colleagues by setting an artificial and subjective class hierarchy or by reference to a number of standards without a realistic and objective contents Ghergut, ; Stainback S.

All these measures can be motivated by the need to update and adapt the curriculum according to the new requirements and trends in the field of science education in many countries, being aware of the importance and necessity of education under the current circumstances and the levels of development reached by humanity in all fields of social, economic, cultural, moral, civic and community.

Finally we can say that the prognosis on the chances of implementing inclusive education in our country is a favorable one despite the results of our survey which showed that there are some difficulties in carrying out the implementation and support of such education. Some of these difficulties are inherent to any change or transformation in the education system but, hopefully, as time passes, the maturation of new components in the system will lead to obtaining the results expected and desired by all who believe in the chance of children with special needs for social integration.

Biklen, D. Cooper, P. Effective Schools for disaffected students. Integration and Segregation, London, Rotledge. Ghergut, A. Psychopedagogy of persons with special needs. Differentiated and inclusive strategies in education, Iasi, Publishing House Polirom. Stainback S. Books Publishing Co. Vrasmas, T. Analysis of inclusive education in Romania Academic research paper on " Economics and business ".

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Alois Ghergut Abstract In the last decades more and more countries have encouraged the idea of an inclusive society, a society open and flexible to the phenomenon of human diversity.

Curriculum for Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Education. A Literature Review. The purpose and research plan Starting with the assertion stated above, we considered of high importance to know the views and attitudes of teachers towards large-scale introduction of integrated education in the educational system in our country.

The arguments which support these views are 3 National action plan on education for children with special educational needs References Ainscow, M. Understanding the development of inclusive school, London, Falmer Press. User agreement Privacy policy. Association "Open Science".

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Abstract In last decades more countries have encouraged the idea of inclusive society, open and flexible to the human diversity phenomenon. In this context the implementation of inclusive policies to integrate students with special educational needs in schools calls actions from different fields: psychology, pedagogy, sociology, social work, nursing, organizational, legal, political, etc. An analysis of the nationally situation has revealed a number of strands in the improvement and development of educational services for integration of children with special needs and disabilities in normal schools. In this context our study emphasizes the evolution, strengths and weaknesses of inclusive programs developing in the Romanian education system. Research methods are based on case studies and analysis of official documents elaborated by the Romanian state authorities. Gradually and in differing degrees, our normal schools have tried to open and to adapt the educational offer in relation with the new directions of change in educational activities the result of integration and inclusion programs.

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Abstract In the last decades more and more countries have encouraged the idea of an inclusive society, a society open and flexible to the phenomenon of human diversity. In this context, the implementation of inclusive policies to integrate students with special educational needs in schools calls for actions from different fields: legal, political, organizational, from the field of psychology, pedagogy, sociology, social work, nursing etc. Measures shall be taken, from the individual to the social, seeking to ultimately transform society into a system capable of ensuring the integration of persons with special needs in community structures. Romanian schools are trying to adapt the educational offer in relation to the new directions of change in educational activities, as a consequence of inclusive educational programs. Conclusions are optimistic, but, at the same time, educational services must be changed and adapted to be more flexible and open to the diversity of children that live in the respective communities. Cozma Street, no.

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