Psidium guajava L. Guava Psidium guajava L. The fruit processing by-products, the leaves and the fruits themselves can be used to feed livestock though their nutritional value is low. Guava is a fast growing evergreen shrub or small tree that can grow to a height of m.
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Psidium guajava L. Guava Psidium guajava L. The fruit processing by-products, the leaves and the fruits themselves can be used to feed livestock though their nutritional value is low. Guava is a fast growing evergreen shrub or small tree that can grow to a height of m. It has a shallow root system. Guava produces low drooping branches from the base and suckers from the roots. The trunk is slender, 20 cm in diameter, covered with a smooth green to red brown bark that peels off in thin flakes.
Young twigs are pubescent. The leaves grow in pairs, opposite each other. The leaf blade is elliptic to oblong in shape, cm long x cm broad, finely pubescent and veined on the lower face, glabrous on the upper face.
The flowers are white in colour, about 3 cm in diameter, solitary or in flower clusters borne at the axils of newly emerging lateral shots. The skin colour is yellowish to orange. The flesh can be white, yellow, pink or red, sour to sweet, juicy and aromatic Ecocrop, ; Orwa et al. The fruit contains a variable number of seeds about mm long and its mesocarp is characterized by the presence of small 0.
Murray et al. It is cultivated in orchards or in home gardens in many tropical countries. Guava wood is useful for tool manufacturing, fences or firewood it is a good source of charcoal Orwa et al. Guava waste from this process consists of a mixture of seeds, fibrous tissues and stone cells El Boushy et al.
Guava leaves can be used as fodder. Guava flowers are fragrant, and a good source of nectar for bees Orwa et al. Guava may have originated either from tropical America or from Asia, and is now widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics. Guava can grow under a wide range of environmental conditions.
In some places, it can form dense thickets with more than trees per ha, and it can cause pasture abandonment and land degradation CABI, ; Orwa et al. There are no recent world statistics for guava production. In India, guava production was above 3 million t in The main producers of mango and guava were India 21 million t , China 4 million t , Kenya 2.
Guava is a very versatile species. It is found from sea level up to an altitude of m in the tropics but produces better below m. Quiescent trees survive light frosts. Guava grows in areas where annual rainfall ranges from to mm. Rainfall should be evenly distributed over the year for optimal fruit production. However, rainfall during fruit ripening causes the fruit to lose flavour and split open.
Guava is among the most drought resistant tropical fruit crops. It grows on a wide range of soils provided they are relatively well-drained. Guava fruit is highly perishable. It should be handled carefully during harvest and transportation. Fully ripe guava fruits should be processed quickly but can be held for a longer period if stored at a cool temperature.
In India, plastic bags providing ventilation allow storage at room temperature for 10 days Rathore, ; El Boushy et al. Guava is propagated both by seeds and vegetatively. In the wild, the seeds are spread by birds and in some places it has become a troublesome weed of pastures.
Guava trees that have been vegetatively propagated start bearing fruit years after planting and are fully productive at years. Guava trees propagated from seed require more time for fruit production. In India, year old trees from seedlings may produce fruits per year while grafted trees at the same age may produce fruits Ecocrop, Guava can be harvested all year round. The fruit is ready to be harvested when it is yellow. In agroforestry systems, guava can be intercropped with fodders plants such as maize, sorghum and cowpea Orwa et al.
The fruits are most commonly harvested by hand El Boushy et al. Guava is considered invasive in some regions, which may be due to its allelopathic effects on native species Smith, It is potentially detrimental to native forest species in the Galapagos Islands Mauchamp, ; Cronk et al. It is invasive in acacia forests and grasslands of Hawaii, where it has been proposed to use goats to control it because they feed on guava bark Adrian et al. Guava has a positive environmental impact in some environments.
In Costa Rica, guava is a valuable part of Brachiaria brizantha pastures Villanueva et al. In Gujarat India , guava trees have been planted in association with Leucaena leucocephala , buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris and African stylo Stylosanthes fruticosa in agro-silvo-pastoral systems to increase productivity and reclaim eroded, degraded and compacted soils with gullies and rocky parts Raturi et al.
Guava waste is made of variable proportions of peels, seeds and stone cells. The whole fruits are also rich in fibre, due to the peels and the presence of seeds and stone cells. These tannins may have antinutritional effects when guava is used as fodder, and probably explain the low digestibility and degradability values observed in guava products.
Conversely, high-tannin guava leaves have been considered a valuable additive for ruminant feeding as the tannins reduce methane emissions Chatterjee et al.
The vegetative parts of guava contain calcium oxalate crystals. High concentrations of calcium oxalates in guava bark may induce calculogenic minerals to accumulate, causing uroliths and penile obstruction in male goats Adrian et al.
In Hawaii, it has been observed that livestock grazing on pastures invaded with guava often suffer from bladder stones, particularly in goats that commonly strip the bark off the trunk Adrian et al. Cattle, sheep and goats have been reported to browse guava leaves, for example in Hawaii and South Africa Adrian et al.
Their nutritive value is generally considered low. In Thailand, two trials gave contradictory results. These authors recommended avoiding using guava leaves as the sole or predominant feed for livestock, due to their low value and to the risks associated with oxalates see Potential constraints above. In Bangladesh, Black Bengal goats stall-fed on guava leaves for d lost weight at a rate of 3. Guava leaves and guava leaf extract with high tannin content may be useful for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes.
In Brazil, guava waste peels and pulp was reported to have the lowest nutritive value when compared to other tropical fruits by-products such as mango peels Pereira et al. Guava fruits are probably highly palatable and it has been reported that livestock eat most of the fruits produced by trees growing in pastures in the tropics. Guava leaf meal could be used to reduce diarrhoea in starter pigs.
Guava by-products are generally of low nutritional value in poultry, though this depends on the product El Boushy et al. The energy value is low between 4. Technological treatments can increase the usability of guava wastes to some extent, particularly with alkali and autoclaving, but they decreased the lipid value and thus the energy content, compared to untreated guava waste El-Deek et al.
Generally, guava waste is not well adapted for poultry feeding, although no toxicity has been recorded. If some guava by-products are used, the diet must be formulated to take into consideration their very low energy value, and the supplementation with higher quality ingredients may limit the economic benefit.
However, feed intake increased, leading to lower feed efficiency El-Deek et al. Guava leaf meal has been tested at low inclusion levels. Some antibacterial effects have been recorded in leaf extracts, but growth performance and feed efficiency were depressed, although not significantly Rahman et al. At the time of writing December , no publication was available in the international literature on the use of guava products or by-products in rabbit feeding.
In Indonesia, a survey found that a third of rabbit farmers used guava leaves to treat diarrhoeas as prescribed in traditional medicine, whereas two thirds used a commercial product also based on guava leaf extracts Yurmiaty, ; Sukardi et al. Guava leaf extracts are recognised for their general antidiarrheal activity and their action on the contractive activity in the small intestine of the rabbit Ojewole et al.
Guava leaf extracts are also recognised for their antimicrobial activity, particularly against enteropathogenic E. Guava waste tested in Nile tilapia had a relatively good DE value of However, the determination of acceptable inclusion rates requires further research Santos et al.
Guava leaves are a potential disinfectant for shrimp ponds. In China, they have been used as a feed additive at levels varying from 0. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values samples used.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Corpus ID: Psidium guajava var. The purposes of this research were to study the effectiveness and to determine the concentration of Psidium guajava var.