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Biochemical characterization of a sphingomonad isolate from the ascocarp of white truffle Tuber magnatum Pico. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Available information on bacteria that influence the economically important white truffle Tuber magnatum Pico life cycle is scarce.
From the ascocarp of white truffle we isolated a strain TMG C, capable for growth in nitrogendepleted conditions and assimilation of mannitol and trehalose.
The results suggest that Sphingobium sp. TMG C could have an influence on the Tuber magnatum life cycle through improved mycelium nutrition and ascocarp decomposition. Traditional Environmental Knowledge TEK related to truffles represents an under-investigated area of research in ethnobiology. Nevertheless, truffles , in a few southern European areas, and notably in South Piedmont, represent a crucial component of the local economy and cultural heritage.
A very sophisticated ethnoecological knowledge of the trees, soils, and climatic conditions considered ideal for searching for and finding white truffles was recorded.
Moreover, a very intimate connection between gatherers and their dogs plays a fundamental role in the success of the truffle search. However, according to the informants, this complex ethnoecological cobweb among men, truffles , dogs, and the environment has been heavily threatened in the past few decades by major changes: climate change, in which the summer has become a very hot and dry season; social changes, due to a more market-oriented attitude of younger gatherers; and especially environmental and macro-economic dynamics, which followed the remarkable expansion of viticulture in the study area.
The TEK of white truffle gatherers indicates the urgent need for fostering sustainable gastronomy-centred initiatives, aimed at increasing the awareness of consumers and food entrepreneurs regarding the co-evolution that has inextricably linked locals, truffles , and their natural environment during the past three centuries.
Gene expression and metabolite changes during Tuber magnatum fruiting body storage. The expression of selected genes and the profiles of non-volatile metabolites have been analyzed. The up-regulation of genes related to cell wall metabolism and to a putative laccase points to cell wall modifications and browning events during cold storage.
Time course RT-qPCR experiments have demonstrated that such transcription events probably depend on the ripening status, since this is delayed in partially ripe fruiting bodies. Changes in the concentrations of linoleate-derived metabolites occur during the first 3 days of considered cold storage, while the other metabolites, such as the amino acids, do not change.
Taken together, the results demonstrate that complex molecular events occur in white truffles in the post-harvest period and before they are used as fresh products. Silvicultural and agronomic practices for improving Tuber magnatum habitat in natural woodlands.
The first practices were the trees and shrubs thinning in order to increase the light and water availability and improve the organic matter cycle. The second one Monchiero-CN is an oak Quercus robur and black poplar wood of limited extension less than square meters. Here the first practices were the shrubs thinning and the digging of narrow channels in contour in order to make easier the soil wetting.
This first management practices gave good results and the experimental activities will be carried on. Chemical Evaluation of Irradiated Egyptian Truffles. The main objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the chemical compositions of irradiated and non-irradiated truffles Al-Kamah as a natural product for human nutrition with concentrated high value protein supplementation.
White and brown truffles grow in Egypt and White truffle is identified as Tirmania nivea and brown truffle is identified as Terfezia budiari.
Field survey for four truffle seasons including the best habit for production in Sidi Barani and Salum. Chemical composition of fresh and stored truffles indicated some differences between the two studied species. It was found that the white truffle had higher contents of carbohydrate and fat Cysteine was the highest amino acid in white truffle , while isoleucine was the highest one in brown truffle. The major fatty acids appeared in white and brown truffles were linoleic 46 and B-sitosterol was the major sterol in white truffle while stigmasterol in brown truffle 3.
The phytochemical screening revealed that numerous compounds are present as saponins, alkaloids, nitrogen bases,sterols, triterpenes and glycosides. The effect of irradiation 2 K Gy was limited on bio-component.
On the other hand, the biochemical components were investigated in irradiated truffle as a method for preservation. Some changes were observed during storage for 2 months. These chages affect the nutrition value of truffle. Nutritive Value of Irradiated Egyptian Truffles. Egyptian truffle could be considered as a good source of protein with good essential amino acids content and high nutritive value.
It was found that white and brown truffles Al-Kamah grow in the north westarn coast of the Egyptian desert, white truffle was identified as Tirmania nivea while brown truffle was identified as Terfezia boudieri. The nutritive value parameters were measured at the end of the experiment, gains in body weight, daily food intake, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio were measured, biological value, the biological effect on liver kideny function serum glucose.
Trapping truffle production in holes: a promising technique for improving production and unravelling truffle life cycle. It is now harvested in plantations and is recognized as an agricultural product by European policy. Empirical techniques without scientific demonstration of their efficiency are often used to improve the production of truffles in plantations. We report an experiment in a truffle orchard where holes were set under trees.
This study confirms the efficiency of this empirical technique and demonstrates new ways for in situ studies of the truffle life cycle. Ideas and perspectives: truffles not radioactive.
Although ranging among the most expensive gourmet foods, it remains unclear if Burgundy truffles Tuber aestivum accumulate radioactivity at a harmful level comparable to other fungi. Here, we measure the Cs in 82 T.
All specimens reveal insignificant radiocaesium concentrations, thus providing an all clear for truffle hunters and cultivators in Europe as well as dealers and customers from around the world.
Our results are particularly relevant in the light of recent cultivation efforts and the fact that forest ecosystems are still highly contaminated with Cs, for which mushrooms are the main pathways to human diets. Truffle trouble: what happened to the Tuberales? Although the Pezizaceae traditionally have been defined mainly on the presence of amyloid reactions of the ascus wall several truffles appear to have lost this character.
The value of the number of nuclei in mature ascospores New records of truffle fungi Basidiomycetes from Turkey. We report the first records of 5 truffle taxa in Turkey: Gymnomyces xanthosporus Hawker A. We also report a new Truffles decontamination treatment by ionizing radiation. A research project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research and the European Union, is in progress aimed to develop processes to enhance, by irradiation, the safety and the wholesomeness of fresh products relevant for Italian food industry.
Irradiation was performed on truffles , since the bacterial contamination impairs their trade in foreign countries. Total microbial population and the shelf life prolongation were investigated. After the irradiation, small variations in the intensity of some NMR resonances due to aromatic compounds and other unassigned compounds were observed.
As confirmed by UV spectrophotometric data, these phenomena seemed to originate from a small degradation of polyphenols; the induced growth of soluble phenols suggested that the 1. Diversity, ecology, and conservation of truffle fungi in forests of the Pacific Northwest. James M.
Trappe; Randy Molina; Daniel L. Smith; Michael A. Castellano; Steven L. Miller; Matthew J. Forests of the Pacific Northwest have been an epicenter for the evolution of truffle fungi with over truffle species and 55 genera currently identified.
Truffle fungi develop their reproductive fruit-bodies typically belowground, so they are harder to find and study than mushrooms that fruit aboveground. Nevertheless, over the last five decades, the Corvallis The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey. Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being.
They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles.
Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.
Studies on volatile organic compounds of some truffles and false truffles. Results of solid phase micro-extraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses, accomplished on sporophores of 11 species of truffles and false truffles , are reported. Volatile organic compounds VOCs found in Gautieria morchelliformis were dimethyl sulphide, 1,3-octadiene, 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadienol, amorphadiene, isoledene and cis-muurola-3,5-diene.
In Hymenogaster luteus var. VOC profile of Octavianina asterosperma was characterised by the presence of dimethyl sulphide, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 3-octanone.
Tuber rufum var. Julio; Reyna, Santiago. The European black truffle is a mycorrhizal fungus native to Spanish Mediterranean forests. In most Spanish regions it was originally commercially harvested in the second half of the 20th century.
Experts agree that wild truffle yields suffered a sharp decline during the s and s. However, official statistics for Spanish harvest are scarce and seemingly conflicting, and little attention has been paid to the regime for the exploitation of truffle -producing forests and its implications on the sustainability of this resource.
Trends in harvest from to and current harvesting practices were analyzed as a case study, taking into account that Spain is a major truffle producer worldwide, but at the same time truffles have only recently been exploited. The available statistical sources, which include an increasing proportion of cultivated truffles since the mids, were explored, with estimates from Truffle Harvesters Federation showing higher consistency.
Statistical sources were then compared with proxies for wild harvest rents from truffle leases in public forests to corroborate time trends in wild harvesting. Results suggest that black truffle production is recovering in recent years thanks to plantations, whereas wild harvest is still declining.
The implications of Spanish legal and institutional framework on sustainability of wild truffle use are reviewed. In the current scenario, the decline of wild harvest is likely to continue and eventually make commercial harvesting economically unattractive, thus aggravating sustainability issues. Strengthening of property rights, rationalization of harvesting pressure, forest planning and involvement of public stakeholders are proposed as corrective measures.
All-clear for gourmets: truffles not radioactive.
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