He made his classical and theological studies at Passau , Bavaria , where he was ordained priest , 12 August, Showing decided aptitude for music, he was given every opportunity for study of the art, and was entrusted with the direction of music in the seminary. From to he directed the choir at the Ratisbon cathedral , his incumbency forming one of the most brilliant periods in the history of this famous institute. Working for church music reform, in Haberl founded a famous school for church musicians at Regensburg Ratisbon. This school began with three professors—Dr. Haberl, Dr.
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Access options available:. Therefore, we should all be grateful to Theodore Karp for undertaking the enormous effort required to produce the present study modestly called an 'introduction' of chant in a period of its history basically from the 17th to the 19th century that has largely been ignored.
Chant of this era is generally thought to have been a distortion created by pedantic late 16th-century humanists horrified by the 'barbarisms' and 'superfluities' in the received repertory the words come from the breve of Pope Gregory XIII commissioning a revision of chant from Palestrina and Zoilo in that eventually resulted in the Editio Medicea of , thereby completely misunderstanding it Karp shows that this was definitely the case -all that thankfully reversed by the monks of Solesmes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
That may be true, but, as Karp writes, this is still. It is a repertoire that should be known, if only for historical and sociological reasons, underlying as it does the musical formation of many composers of note. More important, it possesses numerous musical virtues, even if fidelity to an earlier past is not one of these. Karp is not the first or the only scholar to be concerned with this period, but he may be the first to approach it in such a wide-ranging, detailed and generally non-polemical study.
The two volumes by Raphael Molitor published in concerned only the Medicean Edition, which he clearly despised; he was, after all, a Benedictine. The study consists of a massive comparative edition part 2 of individual chants with accompanying narrative part 1.
The heart of the edition consists of the propers for the Third Mass of Christmas, the First Sunday of Advent, the Third Sunday after Epiphany, and the mass for Easter Sunday, each chant presented first in the 'normative' medieval version followed by up to 16 other versions taken mostly from graduals printed in Italy and other parts of Europe in the late 16th and 17th centuries. After presenting a very useful checklist of printed graduals from to , the narrative volume discusses each chant of these propers at length, pointing out the differences in the chosen sources particularly in prosody, length of melismas and adherence to mode from the presently accepted medieval version, and discussing the motives behind the redactions.
The edition and narrative continue with various other chants, examples of 17th-century French chant the editions of Nivers and neo Gallican chant , selections of chants published in the 18 th century, and finally 'the road back' in the 19th century. Karp introduces each discussion with a history of the chants and their texts, so that one gets an overview of each individual chant beginning with its first sources.
This could be particularly useful to teachers, since by chance or by design these masses contain some of the chants Viderunt omnes, Resurrexi, Haec dies that are the staples of our survey courses in music history.
It is all a bit of a hard slog, since the narrative must be read with the edition constantly in hand perhaps there is a bit too much of it as well-Karp himself refers to an 'unending succession of minutiae', p. The general conclusions that can be drawn from this study are: first, that something really did change in the late 16th and 17th centuries regarding the transmission of chant in printed sources; second, that, while there were indeed many attempts to 'improve' chants in the post-Tridentine Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
It is probably fair to say that, although Gregorian chant may be the oldest continuing musical tradition in the world, scholarly interest generally confines itself to the period of the repertory's creation.
That may be true, but, as Karp writes, this is still an important repertoire closely intertwined with the lives of observant Catholics throughout most of Europe for a span of three hundred years. Additional Information. Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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Graduale de tempore (Gregorian Chant)
Franz Xaver Haberl