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Kyasanur forest disease KFD is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South-western part of India.
The symptoms of the disease include a high fever with frontal headaches, chills, Severe muscle pain with vomiting, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding problems may occur 3—4 days after initial symptom onset.
Patients may experience abnormally low blood pressure, and low platelet, red blood cell, and white blood cell count. These symptoms include fever and signs of neurological manifestations, such as severe headache, mental disturbances, tremors, and vision deficits.
Muscle aches and weakness also occur during this period and the affected person is unable to engage in physical activities. These two species both belong to the family Flaviviridae and diverged over years ago and have thus remained geographically separated. A variety of animals are thought to be reservoir hosts for the disease, including porcupines , rats, squirrels, mice, and shrews.
They develop tremendous viremia and infect the ticks. The vector for disease transmission is Haemaphysalis spinigera , a forest tick. Man is a terminal host and there no man to man transmission because the domestic environment cannot sustain the ticks. The pathogenesis of KFDV is not completely understood. Research using mice models found that KFDV primarily replicated in the brain.
They posited that KFDV could be primarily a neuropathic disease and other symptoms are due to this pathogenesis. Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition HI , complement fixation , neutralization tests.
PCR positivity is limited to 8—10 days from the onset of symptoms. Prevention is by vaccination, as well as preventive measures such as protective clothing and tick population control. The vaccine has a For individuals who receive an additional dose, the effectiveness increases to The spill-over of Kyasanur forest disease happens at the crossroads of the animal-human interaction, especially villages adjoining forest areas and inter-state borders. The disease first manifested as an epizootic outbreak among monkeys, killing several of them in the year Hence the disease is also locally known as "monkey disease" or "monkey fever".
Subsequent studies failed to find any involvement of migratory birds, although the possibility of their role in initial establishment was not ruled out.
The virus was found to be quite distinctive and not closely related to the Russian virus strains. Antigenic relatedness is, however, close to many other strains including the Omsk hemorrhagic fever OHF and birds from Siberia have been found to show an antigenic response to KFD virus. Sequence based studies note the distinctiveness of OHF. Subsequent studies based on sequencing found that the Alkhurma virus found in Saudi Arabia is closely related.
This has been questioned, though, since the Indian virus shows variations in sequence over time and the exact match with the virus sequence of and the Chinese virus of is not expected. This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the virus. The study also raises the possibility of bird involvement in long-distance transfer.
The very recent outbreak, which has claimed two deaths in Siddapura , Karnataka, India. There are 55 positive cases reported from Shivamogga, Karnataka, but the situation is under control as described by health professionals. The disease initially reported from Shimoga district of Karnataka which is a primitive sylvan territory in Western Ghats of India.
The disease spread out to other districts of Karnataka involving districts of Chikkamagalore, Uttara Kannada, Dakshina Kannada, Udupi, Chamarajanagar , Belagavi Monkey deaths and human cases have now been reported from three neighbouring states bordering Karnataka, i. The disease was first noted at Kyasanur village near Sagar in Shivamogga district of Karnataka. The virus has been detected in monkeys in parts of Bandipur National Park Chamarajnagar and parts of the Nilgiris.
Human infection occurred in Bandipur through handling of dead monkeys that were infected. A human carrier was also detected in Wayanad Kerala. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Human disease. The Lancet. Veterinary Microbiology. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Virus Research. Bibcode : PLoSO Antiviral Research.
July The Indian Journal of Medical Research. Journal of Virological Methods. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. New Series. American Journal of Public Health. Kaiser; Melvin A. Traylor; Ezzat Guindy; Sobhy Gaber World Health Organ. Ecology in a Climate of Cold War Suspicion". Economic and Political Weekly. Kumar; Pragya Yadav; Pradip V. Barde; Prasanna N. Yergolkar; Bobbie R.
Erickson; Serena A. Carroll; Akhilesh C. Mishra; Stuart T. Nichol; Devendra T. Mourya Retrieved Deccan Herald.
Current Tropical Medicine Reports. Reviews in Medical Virology. December Journal of Infection. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. V; Raju, K. K; Jambulingam, P. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases.
ICD - 10 : A Orphanet : Zoonotic viral diseases A80—B34 , — Banna virus encephalitis. Bourbon virus. Chandipura virus. Murid gammaherpesvirus 4. Henipavirus encephalitis HeV NiV. Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1. Tanapox Yaba monkey tumor virus.
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Kyasanur Forest disease
Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact with an infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey. No person-to-person transmission has been described. Large animals such as goats, cows, and sheep may become infected with KFD but play a limited role in the transmission of the disease. These animals provide the blood meals for ticks and it is possible for infected animals with viremia to infect other ticks, but transmission of KFDV to humans from these larger animals is extremely rare. Furthermore, there is no evidence of disease transmission via the unpasteurized milk of any of these animals. Section Navigation.
Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD)
Kyasanur forest disease KFD is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South-western part of India. The symptoms of the disease include a high fever with frontal headaches, chills, Severe muscle pain with vomiting, gastrointestinal symptoms and bleeding problems may occur 3—4 days after initial symptom onset. Patients may experience abnormally low blood pressure, and low platelet, red blood cell, and white blood cell count. These symptoms include fever and signs of neurological manifestations, such as severe headache, mental disturbances, tremors, and vision deficits. Muscle aches and weakness also occur during this period and the affected person is unable to engage in physical activities. These two species both belong to the family Flaviviridae and diverged over years ago and have thus remained geographically separated. A variety of animals are thought to be reservoir hosts for the disease, including porcupines , rats, squirrels, mice, and shrews.
Clinical & epidemiological significance of Kyasanur forest disease
Kyasanur forest disease KFD is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic constant presence of disease in Karnataka State, India. It is also referred as monkey fever by local people. KFDV was first identified in , when an illness occurred in monkeys the black faced langur and the red faced bonnet monkey in Kyasanur Forest area of Shimoga district, Karnataka State along with febrile illness and few deaths in humans in neighborhood area Sagar taluk of Shimoga district. Initially the disease was limited to three taluks Sagar, Shikaripur and Sorab of the Shimoga district of Karnataka. During , disease was reported from new districts and new states in India: Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka State; Waynad and Malappuram districts, Kerala State and Nilgiri district, Tamilnadu State.