The Pramanavarttika is written in about 2, verse stanzas. The four chapters deal, respectively, with inference for oneself svarthanumana , valid knowledge pramanasiddhi , sense perception pratyaksa , and inference for others pararthanumana. The work is a commentary on an earlier work by the Buddhist logician Dignaga , the Pramanasamuccaya. The first chapter discusses the structure and types of formal inference and the apoha exclusion theory of meaning.
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The implications for the dates of Dharmaklrti, however, are another matter. In spite of being framed in vigorous rhetoric, this argument from silence is, for some of us at least, much less significant than it was made out to be: it shows little more than that our understanding of the period is la- cunary and leads to various anomalies which we are simply not in a position to solve.
Frauwallner was surely right in discounting some of his contemporaries' attempts at explaining away Xuanzang's silence; he was, as far as we can see, less obviously correct in thinking that their failures were of any real importance.
We seem to have several pieces of evidence of uncertain weight for an earlier dating—e. On a natural reading of the Chinese, not taking into account other potential factors, this reads "But Dharmakirti did not accept it. Agnosticism may be unsatisfying, but it is, for the moment, the rational response here. It is "for the other" in that it is destined for the opponent so that he will come to actually infer the truth of the proposition in question. Now, a. Thus, the classic illustration of this form is "Whatever is produced is impermanent, like a vase.
Now, sound is produced. Once the opponent has the understanding that the reason possesses the three characteristics, the actual inferential cognition will arise in the next moment. Suffice it to say here that there are probably three clear stages.
We shall not enter into further details here. Frauwallner to conclude that Dharmaklrti probably did not finish his work. We have, again, no way of knowing. For our purposes, we shall rely upon those in the commentaries by rGyal tshab Dar ma rin chen and the First Dalai Lama, dGe 'dun grub pa There the major outlines are as follows the Tibetan is that of dGe 'dun grub pa, but the differences from rGyal tshab are negligible : 1.
Explanation of the things to be expressed [by a pararthanumana] brjod bya 'i don :1 k. What is indirectly expressed, i. What is directly expressed, i. There is, however, something of a dilemma here. Katsura in a seminar in Vienna and, with the discovery and editing of new materials, will hopefully come to a satisfactory development in the not too distant future.
Above all, we will need a reliable edition of the text, using new material. Our contribution here can basically only be the Dharmaklrtian side of things. We have done this in a few ways, conscious that much more needs to be done 7 dGe ; rGyal , brjod bya don gi ran biin. Dharmaklrti makes it clear in PV IV, k. Probably, we should understand the Tibetan commentators' statement that the thesis is indirectly expressed by a pararthanumana as turning on the idea that it is logically implied by the other two statements.
Dharmaklrti makes clear in k. In that sense, the reason is what is "directly expressed. Introductory Remarks xix a Preceeding the translation of k. This translation is relatively lightly annotated as there are cross-references to the relevant PV passages where the questions of interpretation are treated. References are also systematically given to the Tibetan translation by Kanakavarman and Dad pa ses rab i. Hopefully, having the parts united in one book will be useful to the reader.
TANI and of k. This is then what I have done. This is a long-term project that is, alas, far beyond the scope of what can be attempted here. As for the research which has occurred in the kist ten years on this chapter, we should mention articles by M. Ono, M. Passages from other works of Dharmakirti are also given when helpful. It will be noticed that I, much like H. These commentar- ial passages were selected for translation in function of their clarity, brevity and explanatory power.
Now, it might be thought that strictures on methodological purity would demand another approach, namely, that we translate one and only one commentator, who had only one angle on Dharmakirti. Nowadays too, apparently, the fourth chapter is largely neglected among the dGe lugs pa. Although dGe 'dun grub pa's word commentary on Pramanavarttika IV proved to be useful for our purposes, it would have made little sense to translate all the topical outlines sa bead which figured there, or in any other Tibetan commentary, as they were too numerous and too little informative.
We have preferred, instead, to compose a detailed analytical table of contents. There are three appendices to the present book. Conversely, when Devendrabuddhi seems to have a clear understanding of the original, it would be unfair to invoke the myth about his not understanding the deeper sense.
Mejor for kindly granting permission to reproduce the article. I have had the good fortune to have received considerable aid and advice from many helpful people who work on Dharmakirti—especially from E. Steinkellner, S. Katsura and their students—although naturally I bear the responsibility for the shortcomings in my translations and interpretations.
It was with Prof. Among the many other people who have in one way or another been of assistance, two deserve special mention: Sara McClintock, who has been extremely helpful and patient in sorting out numerous editorial problems, and Toru Tomabechi, the genial Linux-lama without whom I would still be in the Stone Ages of word-processing.
To all I offer heartfelt thanks. Tom J. Tillemans University of Lausanne 13 See, e. Bibliography and Abbreviations Note: Unless otherwise specified, references to texts in the Tibetan canon bsTan 'gyur are to the Peking Edition.
Journal Asiatique , Included in Collected Works, Vol. New Delhi Tokyo Iff. Gang- tok See NB. A study of Dhar- maklrti's philosophy in the light of its reception in the later Indo-Tibetan tradition. University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. DharmakirtVs Philosophy and its Tibetan Interpretations.
Pi- card, Paris. Alt- und Neu-Indische Studien Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart. WSTB 38, Vienna. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden , ]. Studia Tibetica The Toyo Bunko, Tokyo. WZKS 26, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 7, Cambridge, Mass. Tibetan Text with Sanskrit Fragments. Memoirs of the Faculty of Letters, Kyoto University JIP 8, Journal of the American Academy of Religion 52, Fumimaro Wata- nabe.
Egbert Forsten, Groningen. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies 37, 1, In Studies, WSTB 31, Vienna. Sri Jain Atmanand Sabha, Bhavnagar. MlMAKl et al. JIP 3, IS. HDBK 37,
Pramanavarttika with Geshe Yeshe Thabkhe
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